Fiction, Fantasy, and Fact: “The Mad Scramble for the Elusive Silver Bullet . . . and the Clock Ticks Away.”

The year 2000 is practically around the corner, promising a new era of greatness and wonder . . . as long as you don’t own a computer or work with one. The year 2000 is bringing a Pandora’s Box of gifts to the computer world, and the latch is slowly coming undone.

The year 2000 bug is not really a “bug” or “virus,” but is more a computer industry mistake. Many of the PC’s, mainframes, and software out there are not designed or programmed to compute a future year ending in double zeros. This is going to be a costly “fix” for the industry to absorb. In fact, Mike Elgan who is the editor of Windows Magazine, says ” . .. the problem could cost businesses a total of $600 billion to remedy.” (p. 1)

The fallacy that mainframes were the only machines to be affected was short lived as industry realized that 60 to 80 million home and small business users doing math or accounting etc. on Windows 3.1 or older software, are just as susceptible to this “bug.” Can this be repaired in time? For some, it is already too late. A system that is devised to cut an annual federal deficit to 0 by the year 2002 is already in “hot water.” Data will become erroneous as the numbers “just don’t add up” anymore. Some PC owners can upgrade their computer’s BIOS (or complete operating system) and upgrade the OS (operating system) to Windows 95, this will set them up for another 99 years. Older software however, may very well have to be replaced or at the very least, upgraded.

The year 2000 has become a two-fold problem. One is the inability of the computer to adapt to the MM/DD/YY issue, while the second problem is the reluctance to which we seem to be willing to address the impact it will have. Most IS (information system) people are either unconcerned or unprepared.

Let me give you a “short take” on the problem we all are facing. To save storage space and perhaps reduce the amount of keystrokes necessary in order to enter the year to date-most IS groups have allocated two digits to represent the year.

For example, “1996” is stored as “96” in data files and “2000” will be stored as “00.” These two-digit dates will be on millions of files used as input for millions of applications. This two digit date affects data manipulation, primarily subtractions and comparisons. (Jager, p. 1) For instance, I was born in 1957. If I ask the computer to calculate how old I am today, it subtracts 57 from 96 and announces that I’m 39.

So far so good. In the year 2000 however, the computer will subtract 57 from 00 and say that I am -57 years old. This error will affect any calculation that produces or uses time spans, such as an interest calculation. Banker’s beware!!!
Bringing the problem closer to the home-front, let’s examine how the CAPS system is going to be affected. As CAPS is a multifaceted system, I will focus on one area in particular, ISIS. ISIS (Integrated Student Information System) has the ability to admit students, register them, bill them, and maintain an academic history of each student (grades, transcripts, transfer information, etc.) inside of one system. This student information system has hundreds and
hundreds of references to dates within it’s OS.

This is a COBOL system accessing a ADABAS database. ADABAS is the file and file access method used by ISIS to store student records on and retrieve them from. (Shufelt, p.1) ADABAS has a set of rules for setting up keys to specify which record to access and what type of action (read, write, delete) is to be performed.

The dates will have to have centuries appended to them in order to remain correct. Their (CAPS) “fix” is to change the code in the Procedure Division (using 30 as the cutoff >30 century = “19” <30 century = “20”). In other words, if the year in question is greater than 30 (>30) then it can be assumed that you are referring to a year in the 20th century and a “19” will be moved to the century field. If the year is less than 30 (<30) then it will move a “20” to the century field.

If absolutely necessary, ISIS will add a field and a superdescriptor index in order to keep record retrieval in the order that the program code expects. The current compiler at CAPS will not work beyond the year 2000 and will have to be replaced. The “temporary fix” (Kludge) just discussed (<30 or >30) will allow ISIS to operate until the year 2030, when they hope to have replaced the current system by then.

For those of you with your own home computers, let’s get up close and personal. This problem will affect you as well! Up to 80% of all personal PCs will fail when the year 2000 arrives. More than 80,000,000 PCs will be shut down December 31, 1999 with no problems.

On January 1, 2000, some 80,000,000 PCs will go “belly up!” (Jager, p. 1) These computers will think the Berlin Wall is still standing and that Nixon was just elected President! There is however, a test that you can perform in order to see if you are on of the “lucky” minority that do not have a problem with the year 2000 affecting their PC.
First, set the date on your computer to December 31, 1999. Next, set the time to 23:58 hours (if you use a 24 hour clock (Zulu time)) or 11:58 p.m. for 12 hour clocks. Now, Power Off the computer for at least 3 to 5 minutes.

Note: ( It is appropriate at this time to utter whatever mantras or religious chants you feel may be beneficial to your psyche ). Next, Power On the computer, and check your time and date. If it reads January 1, 2000 and about a minute or two past midnight, breathe a sigh of relief, your OS is free from the year 2000 “bug.” If however, your computer gives you wrong information, such as my own PC did (March 12, 1945 at 10:22 a.m.) welcome to the overwhelming majority of the population that has been found “infected.”

All applications, from spreadsheets to e-mail, will be adversely affected. What can you do? Maybe you can replace your computer with one that is Year 2000 compatible. Is the problem in the RTC (Real Time Clock), the BIOS, the OS? Even if you fix the hardware problem, is all the software you use going to make the “transition” safely or is it going to corrupt as well?!

The answers to these questions and others like them are not answerable with a yes or a no. For one thing, the “leading experts” in the computer world cannot agree that there is even a problem, let alone discuss the magnitude upon which it will impact society and the business world. CNN correspondant Jed Duvall illustrates another possible “problem” scenario. Suppose an individual on the East Coast, at 2 minutes after midnight in New York City on January 1, 2000 decides to mark the year and the century by calling a friend in California, where because of
the time zone difference, it is still 1999. With the current configurations in the phone company computers, the NewYorker will be billed from 00 to 99, a phone call some 99 years long!!! (p. 1) What if you deposit $100 into a savings account that pays 5% interest annually. The following year you decide to close your account. The bank computer figures your $100 was there for one year at 5% interest, so you get $105 back, simple enough. What happens though, if you don’t take your money out before the year 2000? The computer will re-do the calculation
exactly the same way. Your money was in the bank from ’95 to ’00. That’s ’00 minus ’95, which equals a negative 95 (-95). That’s -95 years at 5% interest. That’s a little bit more than $10,000, and because of the minus sign, it’s going to subtract that amount from your account.

You now owe the bank $9,900. Do I have your attention yet??!!

There is no industry that is immune to this problem, it is a cross-platform problem. This is a problem that will affect PCs, minis, and mainframes. There are no “quick fixes” or what everyone refers to as the “Silver Bullet.” The Silver Bullet is the terminology used to represent the creation of an automatic fix for the Yk2 problem.

There are two major problems with this philosophy. First, there are too many variables from hardware to software of different types to think that a “cure-all” can be found that will create an “across-the-board” type of fix. Secondly, the mentality of the general population that there is such a “fix” or that one can be created rather quickly and easily, is creating situations where people are putting off addressing the problem due to reliance on the “cure-all.” The ” . . . sure someone will fix it.” type attitude pervades the industry and the population, making this problem more serious than it already is. (Jager, p. 1)

People actually think that there is a program that you can start running on Friday night . . . everybody goes home, and Monday morning the problem has been fixed. Nobody has to do anything else, the Yk2 problem poses no more threat, it has been solved. To quote Peter de Jager,

“Such a tool, would be wonderful.
Such a tool, would be worth Billions of dollars.
Such a tool, is a na ve pipe dream.
Could someone come close? Not very . . .
Could something reduce this problem by 90%? I don’t believe so.
Could it reduce the problem by 50%? Possibly . . . but I still don’t believe so.
Could it reduce the workload by 30%? Quite likely.”
(p. 2)

Tools are available, but are only tools, not cures or quick fixes. How will this affect society and the industry in 2000? How stable will software design companies be as more and more competitors offer huge “incentives” for people to “jump ship” and come work for them on their problems!? Cash flow problems will put people out of business. Computer programmers will make big bucks from now until 2000, as demand increases for their expertise. What about liability issues that arise because company “A” reneged on a deal because of a computer glitch. Sue! Sue! Sue! What about ATM lockups, or credit card failures, medical emergencies, downed phone systems. This is a wide spread scenario because the Yk2 problem will affect all these elements and more.

As is obvious, the dimensions to this challenge are apparent. Given society’s reliance on computers, the failure of the systems to operate properly can mean anything from minor inconveniences to major problems: Licenses and permits not issued, payroll and social service checks not cut, personnel, medical and academic records malfunctioning, errors in banking and finance, accounts not paid or received, inventory not maintained, weapon systems malfunctioning (shudder!), constituent services not provided, and so on, and so on, and so on.

Still think you’ll be unaffected . . . highly unlikely. This problem will affect computations which calculate age, sort by date, compare dates, or perform some other type of specialized task. The Gartner Group has made the following approximations:

At $450 to $600 per affected computer program, it is estimated that a medium size company will spend from $3.6 to $4.2 million to make the software conversion. The cost per line of code is estimated to be $.80 to $1. VIASOFT has seen program conversion cost rise to $572 to $1,204.

ANDERSEN CONSULTING estimates that it will take them more than 12,000 working days to correct its existing applications. YELLOW CORPORATION estimates it will spend approximately 10,000 working days to make the change. Estimates for the correction of this problem in the United States alone is upward of $50 to $75 Billion dollars.

Is it possible to eliminate the problem? Probably not, but we can make the transition much smoother with cooperation and the right approach. Companies and government agencies must understand the nature of the problem. Unfortunately, the spending you find for new software development will not be found in Yk2 research. Ignoring the obvious is not the way to approach this problem.

To assume that the problem will be corrected when the system is replaced can be a costly misjudgment. Priorities change, development schedules slip, and system components will be reused, causing the problem to be even more widespread. Correcting the situation may not be so difficult as it will be time consuming. For instance, the Social Security Administration estimates that it will spend 300 man-years finding and correcting these date references in their information systems – systems representing a total of 30 million lines of code. (ITAA, p. 3)

Common sense dictates that a comprehensive conversion plan be developed to address the more immediate functions of an organization (such as invoices, pay benefits, collect taxes, or other critical organization functions), and continue from there to finish addressing the less critical aspects of operation. Some of the automated tools may help to promote the “repair” of the systems, such as in:

  • line by line impact analysis of all date references within a system, both in terms of data and procedures;
  • project cost estimating and modeling;
  • identification and listing of affected locations;
  • editing support to make the actual changes required;
  • change management;
  • and testing to verify and validate the changed system.

Clock simulators can run a system with a simulated clock date and can use applications that append or produce errors when the year 2000 arrives while date finders search across applications on specific date criteria, and browsers can help users perform large volume code inspection. As good as all these “automated tools” are, there are NO “Silver Bullets” out there.

There are no quick fixes. It will take old fashioned work-hours by personnel in order to make this “rollover” smooth and efficient. Another area to look at are the implications for public health information. Public health information and surveillance at all levels of local, state, federal, and international public health are especially sensitive to and dependent upon dates for epidemiological (study of disease occurrence, location, and duration) and health statistics reasons.

The date of events, duration between events, and other calculations such as age of people are core epidemiologic and health statistic requirements. (Seligman, p. 1) Along with this, public health authorities are usually dependent upon the primary data providers such as physician practices, laboratories, hospitals, managed care organizations, and out-patient centers etc., as the source for original data upon which public health decisions are based.

The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for example, maintains over 100 public health surveillance systems all of which are dependent upon external sources of data. (Issa, p. 5) This basically means that it is not going to be sufficient to make the internal systems compliant to the year 2000 in order to address all of the ramifications of this issue.

To illustrate this point, consider the following scenario: in April 2000, a hospital sends an electronic surveillance record to the local or state health department reporting the death of an individual who was born in the year “00”; is this going to be a case of infant mortality or a geriatric case??

Finally, let’s look at one of the largest software manufacturing corporations and see what the implications of the year 2000 will be for Microsoft products. Microsoft states that Windows 95 and Windows NT are capable of supporting dates up until the year 2099. They also make the statement however:

“It is important to note that when short, assumed dates (mm/dd/yy) are entered, it is impossible for the computer to tell the difference between a day in 1905 and 2005.

Microsoft’s products, that assume the year from these short dates, will be updated in 1997 to make it easier to assume a 2000-based year. As a result, Microsoft recommends that by the end of the century, all PC software be upgraded to versions from 1997 or later.”

Microsoft further states that its development tools and database management systems provide the flexibility for the user to represent dates in many different ways.

Proper training of developers to use date formats that accommodate the transition to the year 2000 is of the utmost importance. For informational purposes, I have included a chart that represents the more popular Microsoft products, their date limits, and date formats. (Chart on previous page)
(Microsoft, p. 3)

So . . . is everyone affected? Apparently not. In speaking with the owners of St. John Valley Communications, an Internet-Access provider based in Fort Kent, they are eagerly awaiting the coming of 2000. They, Alan Susee and Dawn Martin had enough foresight to make sure that when they purchased their equipment and related software, that it would all be year 2000 compliant.

It can be done, as evidenced by this industrious couple of individuals. The key is to get informed and to stay informed. Effect the changes you can now, and look to remedy the one’s that you can’t. The year 2000 will be a shocker and thriller for many businesses, but St. John Valley Communications seem to have it under control and are holding their partry hats in one hand and the mouse in the other.

As is obviously clear from the information presented, Yk2 is a problem to be reckoned with. The wide ranging systems (OS) and software on the market lend credence to the idea that a “silver bullet” fix is a pipe dream in the extreme. This is not however, an insurmountable problem. Efficient training and design is needed, as well as a multitude of man-hours to effect the “repairs” needed to quell the ramifications and repercussions that will inevitably occur without intervention from within.

The sit back and wait for a cure-all approach will not work, nor is it even imaginable that some people (IS people) with advanced knowledge to the contrary, would buy into this propaganda of slow technological death. To misquote an old adage, “The time for action was 10 years ago.” Whatever may happen, January 1, 2000 will be a very interesting time for some, a relief for others . . . and a cyanide capsule for the “slackers.” What will you do now that you are better “informed?” Hopefully you will effect the necessary “repairs and pass the word to the others who may be taking this a little too lightly. It may not be a matter of life or death, but it sure as heck could mean your job and financial future.

This is my essay about the NFL and its players.

The NFL is divided into two leagues, the AFC and the NFC. In those divisions, they are divided into 3 conferences, the west, central, east. They both have about 14 teams each and they compete head to head.
They start the game with a coin-toss. The winner chooses to either receive or kick-off, they do the opposite at half time.

The game is divided in 4 quarters, 15 minutes each, with a break half way called half-time.
On each team there are 56 players. The starting line ups consist of 11 players on offense and defense. There are also 5 referees.

They hike the ball and once that happens its called a play. The QB can either pass the ball or hand it off. If he throws it and the receiver drops it the play is over. If he catches it then drops it the play is over.

Many types of penalties can be called. The most common is offsides and its 5 yards and replay the down. The worst is unnecessary roughness which can lead to 15 yards and ejections.

At each end of the field is an end zone which if you get in there it is called a touchdown on offense, which is worth six points, or a safety on defense which is worth 2 points on defense. If you score a touchdown, a field goal is worth 1 point, if you don’t its worth 3 points.

For 4 quarters they battle it out and at the end, the team with the most points is rewarded with the win. Now that is my essay on the NFL.

In the United States, the legal drinking age for all 50 States and the District of Columbia is 21 years of age. The drinking age is 21 because the powers that control our government decided that when one becomes 21, one is magically transformed into a responsible person capable of handling the burden that comes with the right to consume alcohol. The drinking age is too high in this country. Why enact laws to prohibit an act that will be ignored by many of our peers?

The opposition may say that the higher drinking age discourage teenagers and young adults from consuming alcohol. They say the laws that force merchants to refuse to sell alcohol to persons under 21 years of age will help stem the “problem” of underage consumption.

They believe this will make it virtually impossible for people under 21 to obtain alcohol. The opposition also believes that the laws against underage consumption of alcoholic beverages will dissuade young people from drinking alcohol.

The laws that prohibit merchants from selling alcohol to persons under 21 are hard to enforce. Even if they are enforced by the authorities, the establishment that breaks that law is rarely punished severely. For example, in Belmont County in Ohio, the police conducted raids of 5-10 different establishments in 1993 that had liquor licenses and reportedly to sell alcoholic beverages to minors. It was proven that each business in question had indeed been guilty of the charges.

What would one suspect happen to the business? Wouldn’t one expect for them to lose their liquor license? On the contrary, these businesses were given probation without so much as a fine.

Also, even if the person under 21 cannot go buy the alcohol himself because he is refused by a merchant, he can find an adult and give them the money needed to purchase the alcohol and have them purchase it for them. This is especially active around college campuses, where it seems to be an accepted practice for seniors, who are generally over 21, to go and purchase the alcohol for the underage drinker. If a person did not want to go through the hassle of asking an older person, they could go someone skilled in the art of making fake ID’s. This is a burgeoning business among the different campuses I visited.

Spending two weeks at Ohio State, one had the offer of three different authentic looking Ohio driver’s licenses. So, as one can see it is quite easy for an underage drinker to obtain alcohol.
One may think that the penalties for underage drinking would be severe while in fact they are quite light unless one is unfortunate enough to be arrested for DUI. The penalty for being convicted of underage consumption is generally a slap on the wrist for offenders. They usually are required to pay court costs and attend an alcohol rehabilitation counseling session.

Finally, why can other countries condone the act of consuming alcohol as a young person when it is such an “immoral” act in the United States? In many other countries it is a widely accepted practice to drink a glass of wine or other alcoholic beverage with their meal. In this way, they learn moderation. If people in the United States learned moderation at a young age, then they would be less apt to binge drink (drink just to become drunk). This would result in far fewer deaths from alcohol related causes since more people would know how to imbibe without excess.
Obviously then the law is not working.

Why keep a law that cannot be enforced? If the repercussions from the act of breaking the law are few and light, Why retain the law at all? The legal drinking age in the United States must be lowered now. If young people in other countries can handle the responsibility of drinking, why can’t it be the same for our country?

The Apollo 13 mission was launched at 2:13 p.m. EST, April 11, 1970 from launch complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center. The space vehicle crew consisted of James A. Lovell, Jr. commander, John L. Swigert, Jr., command module pilot and Fred W. Haise, Jr. lunar module pilot.

The Apollo 13 Mission was planned as a lunar landing mission but was aborted en route to the moon after about 56 hours of flight due to loss of service module cryogenic oxygen and consequent loss of capability to generate electrical power, to provide oxygen and to produce water.

Spacecraft systems performance was nominal until the fans in cryogenic oxygen tank 2 were turned on at 55:53:18 ground elapsed time (GET). About 2 seconds after energizing the fan circuit, a short was indicated in the current from fuel cell 3, which was supplying power to cryogenic oxygen tank 2 fans. Within several additional seconds, two other shorted conditions occurred.

Electrical shorts in the fan circuit ignited the wire insulation, causing temperature and pressure to increase within cryogenic oxygen tank 2. When pressure reached the cryogenic oxygen tank 2 relief valve full-flow conditions of 1008 psi, the pressure began decreasing for about 9 seconds, at which time the relief valve probably reseated, causing the pressure to rise again momentarily.

About a quarter of a second later, a vibration disturbance was noted on the command module accelerometers.

The next series of events occurred within a fraction of a second between the accelerometer disturbances and the data loss. A tank line burst, because of heat, in the vacuum jacket pressurizing the annulus and, in turn, causing the blow-out plug on the vacuum jacket to rupture. Some mechanism in bay 4 combined with the oxygen buildup in that bay to cause a rapid pressure rise which resulted in separation of the outer panel. The panel struck one of the dishes of the high-gain antenna.

The panel separation shock closed the fuel cell 1 and 3 oxygen reactant shut-off valves and several propellant and helium isolation valves in the reaction control system. Data were lost for about 1.8 seconds as the high-gain antenna switched from narrow beam to wide beam, because of the antenna being hit and damaged.

As a result of these occurrences, the CM was powered down and the LM was configured to supply the necessary power and other consumables. The CSM was powered down at approximately 58:40 GET. The surge tank and repressurization package were isolated with approximately 860 psi residual pressure (approx. 6.5 lbs of oxygen total). The primary water glycol system was left with radiators bypassed.

All LM systems performed satisfactorily in providing the necessary power and environmental control to the spacecraft. The requirement for lithium hydroxide to remove carbon dioxide from the spacecraft atmosphere was met by a combination of the CM and LM cartridges since the LM cartridges alone would not satisfy the total requirement. The crew, with direction from Mission Control, built an adapter for the CM cartridges to accept LM hoses.

The service module was jettisoned at approximately 138 hours GET, and the crew observed and photographed the bay-4 area where the cryogenic tank anomaly had occurred. At this time, the crew remarked that the outer skin covering for bay-4 had been severely damaged, with a large portion missing. The LM was jettisoned about 1 hour before entry, which was performed nominally using primary guidance and navigation system.

For my book report, I have chosen the novel Never Cry Wolf by Farley Mowat. In this report I will give a brief summary of the novel as well as why I have chosen it for my report. Finally, I will give my reactions to the novel with regards to its analysis of the place of human beings in nature, whether the destiny of humans and nature is intertwined, and how nature is regarded by the different religious and political philosophies demonstrated in the novel.

Never Cry Wolf is based upon the true story of the author’s experiences during two years spent as a biologist studying a family of wolves in northern Canada during the mid nineteen fifties. When Mowat is sent on his expedition his goal is to bring back proof of the wolves decimating effect on the northern herds of Caribou. After arriving at the remote location, he finds a group of wolves and begins his research.

He then discovers the differing peculiarities of the wolves and finds that they are more than the savage and merciless hunters that he had previously believed them to be. He discovers that they are in fact a very efficient and resourceful and have their own distinctive culture.

For example he discovers that they in fact have a symbiotic relationship with the caribou in that they keep the caribou population strong by hunting down only the sick and weaker members of the herd. This leads to a situation where the strongest caribou survive and thus the herd is made stronger.

As well they have their own social orders that ensure peaceful co-existence with one another instead of being reduced to fighting amongst themselves. Before Mowat’s excursion conventional wisdom thought that that was the only interraction that the wolves were capable of. In his group he finds a monogamous pair who are raising their litter with assistance from another male wolf who Mowat terms to be an “uncle”.

His previous assumptions which portrayed the wolves as cold heated killers who lived only for the hunt, is challenged as he observes these animals play and interact within their environment his previous assumptions about the role that these animals play in nature. His attitude metamorphosis’ from one of disdain and contempt to one of genuine respect and admiration.

I chose this novel for study instead of Siddhartha because I felt that this novel speaks more directly to me. I felt this way firstly, because of the location of the novel, northern Canada, in which I traveled for a summer, and secondly because I enjoy spending time in the outdoors.

This meant that I could more easily identify the setting and thus relate better to the author’s feelings and perceptions. Meanwhile, Siddhartha was set in India and in my mind was dated and unreal humankind (society) seems today to have more of a desire and a need to get back to nature and the simple life.

The spirit of peace that emanates from Mowat’s book allows one to focus on what is possible when one has time to reflect In this I mean that Never Cry Wolf seemed to hold a more meaningful message for modern times. As well I found the style of writing in the Mowat novel to be clearer then in Siddhartha. These were some of the factors that combined to produce a situation where Never Cry Wolf captured my attention more than Siddhartha. It was for these reasons that I chose the novel by Farley Mowat.

In my opinion, Never Cry Wolf placed humans in the role of intruders as far as nature is concerned. Mowat cites several instances where humans violate nature and represent a threat to its sanctity. Even though this threat is not reciprocated by nature, humans continue to infringe upon nature and then deny the consequences of their actions.

Two prevalent examples of this occur: when Mowat accidentally wanders into the wolves den when the wolves’ are there, and again when he discovers a herd of deer that have been slaughtered by hunters. Both examples show humans intruding upon nature and using it for their own purposes.

In the first example Mowat decides to explore the wolves’ den without realizing that they are still inside. Once inside he discovers that they are still there and he fears that he is going to be killed by them. Even though he is an intruder the wolves take no action against his presence and he manages to escape.

The most disturbing aspect of this event is afterwards when he describes the rage and fear that overcame him at the thought of having been at their mercy:

“I sat down on a stone and shakily lit a cigarette, becoming aware as I did that I was no longer frightened. Instead an irrational rage possessed me. If I had had my rifle I believe that I might have reacted in brute fury and tried to kill both wolves.” (P. 175)

In the second incident Mowat illustrates how humans brutally use nature for their own benefit and pleasure. The situation occurs when a trapper comes to Mowat to show him “proof” of the savage and merciless ways of wolves. Following the trapper they come to a spot where approximately 50 deer have been slaughtered. However, he quickly finds out that the deaths were the result of human hunters.

Of the herd only two or three had been touched after the kill, their heads taken home as trophies. Despite the evidence Mowat is unable to convince people of the true nature of the predators and in response to the incidence the bounty on wolves is raised by twenty dollars.

Overall I would say that Mowat’s book makes the point that the destiny of humans and animals are closely entwined. Several times in the novel he illustrates how each affects the other. As well he also demonstrates how humans can still learn from nature. One example of this occurs when Mowat’s food supplies run low and he adapts the fishing tactics of the wolves in order to catch fish.

The final aspect of Never Cry Wolf that I will examine is how nature is regarded by the various religious and political philosophies demonstrated in the novel. The two different philosophies which are demonstrated are one which are diametrically opposed. The first philosophy is that of mainstream western culture.

This philosophy views nature as something to be feared and ultimately conquered. Throughout the book there are examples where people with this viewpoint attempt to dominate nature or at least attempt to impose human moral judgment upon it.

This is especially prevalent in people’s attitudes towards wolves. They see the wolves bloodthirsty, merciless killers who are pillaging the caribou herds for mere blood sport. And yet those people fail to recognize that the true slaughterers are the human predators who blatantly overhunt the caribou herds. For instance, Mowat finds that conservatively, trappers kill a combined 112 000 deer every year but still blame the wolf for the caribous’

The other philosophy demonstrated in Never Cry Wolf is that of the native Americans of northern Canada. Their philosophy, as presented by Mowat is one which views humans as only being a fraction of the total importance of nature. In their culture they are taught to have reverence for nature and to be efficient in their use of natural resources. This philosophy causes them to see wolves, not as bloodthirsty menaces, but as animals simply fulfilling their role in the natural chain.

In conclusion I believe that Never Cry Wolf illustrates the various beliefs that different people have about nature and the environment. Mowat also effectively demonstrates how these beliefs influence people’s interaction with nature. Finally, Mowat leaves no doubt that humans do have a large and sometimes traumatic impact upon nature. However with his experience changing Mowat’s own change of thinking, we see that it is possible for humans to correct the error of their humanistic thinking.

This can particularly be seen in Mowat’s closing sentences…
“I thought of Angeline and her pup cowering at the bottom of the den where they had taken refuge from the thundering apparition of the aircraft, and I was shamed.” (P.175)

A Character Analysis of the Many Facets of Pearl The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a book of much symbolism. One of the most complex and misunderstood symbols in the book is Pearl, the illegitimate daughter of Hester Prynne and Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale. Throughout the novel Pearl develops into a dynamic symbol; one that is always changing.

In the following essay, I will explore Hawthorne’s symbolism of Pearl from birth, age three, and age seven. Also, I will attempt to disprove the notion that Pearl is branded with a metaphorical scarlet letter “A” representing amorality; instead she represents the immorality of her mother’s adultery.

In The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne, for her sins, received a scarlet letter “A” which she had to wear upon the “breast of her gown”(Hawthorne 39). It was the Puritan way of treating her as a criminal for the crime of adultery.

The Puritan treatment of Hester did not stop simply with the assignment of the letter. As she walked through the streets, she was looked down upon as if she were some sort of evil spirit among them, being punished for some ghastly crime. This gave Hester much mental anguish and grief.

On the other hand, God’s treatment of Hester for her sin was quite different than the scarlet letter. He gave Hester the punishment of rearing a very unique child whom she named Pearl. “But she named the infant “Pearl,” as being of great price, –purchased with all she had, –her mother’s only treasure!”(Hawthorne, 62). Hester named her daughter Pearl because she had to give up everything, including freedom, for her.

This punishment handed down from God was a constant mental and physical reminder to Hester of what she had done wrong. There was no escaping it. In this aspect, Pearl symbolized God’s way of punishing Hester for the sin of adultery. Even when she was just a baby, “her infant’s eyes had been caught by the glimmering of the gold embroidery about the letter” (Hawthorne 67).

From birth, Pearl seemed to be attracted to the scarlet letter “A” that clung to her mother’s chest. In one specific incident when Pearl was a baby she reached up smiling to touch the scarlet letter on Hester’s dress as she stooped over her cradle.

This gesture by the baby mortified Hester because of Pearl’s innocent recognition of the underlying meaning of the letter on her chest. It seemed as if Pearl unknowingly antagonized her mother by constantly reminding her of the “fatal token” (Hawthorne 67). “From that epoch, except when the child was asleep, Hester had never felt a moment’s safety; not a moment’s calm enjoyment of her” (Hawthorne 67).

Hester realized that she could not enjoy the normal maternal relationship with her daughter because of the embarrassing symbol on her chest. Hawthorne states, “Weeks, it is true, would sometimes elapse, during which Pearl’s gaze might never once be fixed upon the scarlet letter; but then, again, it would come at unawares, like the stroke of sudden death, and always with that peculiar smile, and odd expression of the eyes” (67).

Hester recognized that Pearl’s odd expression was her own recognition of the immoral meaning of the scarlet letter and Pearl herself. At age three, Pearl still possessed the same childish fascination with her mother’s decorative symbol of shame. Hawthorne told of one certain incident were “… she amused herself with gathering handfuls of wild flowers, and flinging them, one by one, at her mother’s bosom; dancing up and down, like a little elf, whenever she hit the scarlet letter.” (67). Pearl, through the use of the letter, toyed with her mother’s emotions as if it were a game placed there for her own personal amusement.

Hester still bore witness to “little Pearl’s wild eyes”; the same expression that she had seen before in her eyes as a baby (Hawthorne 67). Hester could tell that with every day that passed her little girl was becoming more and more aware of the scarlet letter and its immoral meaning.

Pearl was now old enough to ask questions about her identity. When Pearl questioned her mother as to where she came from, Hester vaguely answered, “Thy Heavenly Father sent thee!” (Hawthorne 68). Sometimes it seemed to Hester that Pearl was possessed by an evil spirit; an insight supported by Pearl when she denied having a Heavenly Father, and then demanded Hester really tell her where she came from.

Hawthorne states “Whether moved only by her ordinary freakishness, or because an evil spirit prompted her, she put up her small forefinger, and touched the scarlet letter” (68). This again reiterates the notion of Pearl toying with her mother’s emotions and also the symbolism of her immoral character with regard to her mother’s scarlet letter. As Pearl matured to age seven, her actions toward the scarlet letter became bolder.

Hawthorne told of an incident where “…Pearl took some eel-grass, and imitated, as best she could, on her own bosom, the decoration with which she was so familiar on her mother’s. A letter,–the letter “A”,–but freshly green, instead of scarlet!” (121). Pearl, at this questioning age, wonders if her mother will ask what this green letter “A” means. Pearl inherently did this to draw forth some sort of reaction from Hester.

I do not believe that Pearl really knew the immoral symbolism behind the scarlet letter, but she did know that it was somehow associated with the actions of Reverend Dimmesdale and the whole Puritan community.

Her childhood curiosity was more insightful that other seven-year-olds and she tried to coax her mother into telling her the truth behind the letter. Hester was forced into being untruthful, not only with herself, but also with Pearl, by telling her “What know I of the minister’s heart?” and that she wore the letter “…for the sake of its gold thread!” (Hawthorne 123). In her own way, Pearl was reaching out to her mother.

She was trying to tell Hester that she could confide in her the meaning of the scarlet letter but her mother was afraid to entrust her with the knowledge and face the fact that Pearl would now know the truth about her shame. Another incident that occurred in the novel was when Hester, Pearl, and Reverend Dimmesdale were in the forest contemplating their escape to a new life as a family.

When Hester called for Pearl to come to her, Pearl would not, and simply pointed her finger at Hester’s chest. Hester stated, “I see what ails the child…children will not abide any, the slightest, change in the accustomed aspect of things that are daily before their eyes” (Hawthorne 142). Pearl would not go to Hester for the simple fact that she was not wearing the scarlet letter. Pearl had grown attached to the letter because since birth, she had always seen her mother wear it.

One insight to this incident was that Pearl had become so closely associated with the letter on Hester’s breast that she had become the embodiment not only of Hester’s sin but also of her conscious. By Hester not wearing the scarlet letter she was free from the reminder of her sins. In Pearl’s eyes the scarlet letter was as much a part of her mother as any other bodily feature.

Without it, Pearl could not play on her mother’s emotions by reminding Hester of the immoral act in which she was conceived. In closing, Pearl was a source of many different kinds of symbolism. She, in a way, really was the scarlet letter showing the immorality of the act of adultery. If she had never been born, Hester would have never been found guilty of adultery, and thus never would have had to wear that symbol of shame upon her chest.

Pearl, in her own way, helped her mother come to terms with her sin by being her constant reminder. As a final note, Pearl was more than her mother’s only treasure or sometimes headache; she was her mother’s only source of survival.

The presidential elections are here. The elections only take place every four years and now it is time again to vote for the man whom we trust to be our leader for another four years. There many things involved in the elections. Campaigning and debating are two things used to help get the people to be in favor of those who are running. The two main candidates this year are Dole/Kemp and Clinton/Gore.

Campaigning is done in many different ways, it is a technique used by the candidates in order for more people to recognize them and become more familiar with their ideas. It is done on television, in newspapers, signs that are put all over your town, and on the internet.

The object is to put the adds in places where many people are going to see them. The internet and on television is a very good way to make the candidates known because of the tremendous internet traffic and increasing television viewers.

Debating is a requirement of the elections and there are different kinds of debates. There are debates between the candidates and there are some between the possible vice-presidents.

The speakers must be very good at thinking of something to say quickly and making their point clear to the audience in order to make a difference in the debates. The debates are a time to show the audience the flaws the other candidate might have and to also show them the good things that you may have to offer them as their president or vice-president.

Dole is the major republican candidate for president. One of Dole’s major plans in his presidency, if he is elected, is to cut taxes and balance the budget. This is a very hard thing to do, but it is a good aspect of Bob Dole.

He also has a goal for a plan of economic growth. I myself like the aspect that Bob Dole as a republican is against abortion. I think abortion is murder to innocent babies who are not even given a chance to live.

Clinton is the other major candidate for the elections. He is a democrat that is hoping to get re-elected to serve another four years. While in his first term, Clinton has made abortion a legal act, increased our taxes, and been
accused of many small lies; but if he is accused of those small lies, why should we not be able to think he is lying to us? One of Clinton’s big concerns is health care. He has done many things pertaining to this issue, but only half of it has been followed through with.

The elections are up to the people, and it is the people who decides who will be your leader for another four years. So, let’s vote smart and think about who will better our country for the next four years.

Philosophy — a:pursuit of wisdom. b:a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means.

Through this most specific definition given to us respectively by Sir Webster’s dictionary, I choose in my best interest to refrain to you just what the meaning of philosophy is.

I implore you to try and comprehend this matter in what exactly this word brought abrupt to us is about. The word philosophy has two definitive definitions. The first simply means to pursue, or strive for, wisdom. I beg to differ in the understanding of the fault I make in trying to gain this unprecedented ‘knowledge.’ The knowledge that we as a unity try to strive for have made us, again as a unity, divides.

I asked myself exactly how we have achieved ‘civilized chaos’ in the search for our solutions and resolutions of the very ‘virus’ it seems we have caused. I would not of course go so far as to say a civil war between the generations within this house, but moreover to express that simply by me using philosophy, it becomes not only my benefit, but a mutualism between us.

Please feel more than obliged to correct me if I am incorrect (morally or politically) but are we not all philosophers ourselves? As a baker’s vocation is to bake, a philosopher’s vocation is to think. Is it not that we all think? I was deeply saddened at your comments in the oppression and restriction to what I may or may not strive to think.

As a pacifist and non-sadist, I call what you believe in as ‘ingraining or indoctrination’, whereas our own society may call it ‘brainwashing’. Our human nature gives us freedom, as does the Constitution.

It guarantees us the right to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”. Within the refines of this home, I find it a task to see those liberties granted. Here is a few of the world’s greatest oppressors: Jim Jones, Adolph Hitler, Napoleon Bonaparte, Julius Caesar, David Koresh, and Anton Szandor LaVey.

I know, as well as you, that these notorious six are among the world’s most hated. However here are a few oppressors from another standpoint: Sigmund Freud, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Jesus Christ, Mahatma Ghandi, and Siddharta Guatama the Buddha. These are the exact opposite of the previously mentioned, who put an oppression into a good morality. It’s not about who uses the gift, it’s the entirety of the user’s ethics.

The second definition of the word philosophy aptly states that it is the desire to learn more through speculation rather than observation. Without speculation, we as a planet would be at loss. There would never have been discoveries of planets, medicinal uses, genetic finds, and behavioral studies.

Lets face it, without philosophy, we would still get leeched at the doctors for the common cold. These fine discoveries were all made by philosophers. Now these philosophers were brave enough to challenge science, the government, and even the Church. Now, I am not one to stand here and say that I will believe in unholy blasphemy, but rather I feel I should receive the liberty to speak freely as long as I hold myself in a civil and adult manner.

In conclusion to this essay, I must tell you that this in itself is my philosophy. I believe it was the great reformist Voltaire who says, “I do not agree with a single word you say, but will fight to the death your right to say it.” In some respects, I feel non-indifferent to his theory. So I beseech you to help yourselves as well as others in this house to let me speak freely of my philosophy, for the word is simply a synonym to the word think. The famous quote, “I think, therefore I am.” supports my belief and should support yours.

Furthermore, if we do not philosophize, we do not think. Scholars have made it known that the only relics of others are within their philosophy. For instance, GOD, Elshadai, or Adanai, is known exclusively through his philosophies. The Bible refers to creation as, “. . . and GOD saw it was good. . .” GOD philosophized that things were good. I know you cannot disagree with me on this reasoning, for you would be one to doubt GOD.

I am trying my best to not make this about theology, but to simply keep it within one field. In short: the only people that choose to who speaks of philosophy are the speaker themselves.

A Chinese medical technique; acupuncture is a medicine originating in the orient over four-thousand years ago. Used primarily for pain relief, but also in curing disease and general health improvement.

Oriental Medicine views (illness and pain) as an imbalance of one’s energy. With Acupuncture the energetic balance can be restored, thus helping the body to rid itself of disease. Often illnesses can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Acupuncture consists of inserting hair thin needles through specific spots in the skin called acupuncture points. These specific spots of insertion are over neuroreceptors in underlying muscles.

These needles are inserted along meridian points throughout the body; There are hundreds of these meridians, all serving different purposes. “Evidence proves that needling simulates peripheral nerves in the muscles which send messages to the brain to release endorphins (morphine-like peptides in the brain). These natural chemicals then block the sending of painful messages from the brain.” (Acupuncture-Microsoft Network Nov. 30, 1996).

Acupuncture needles are typically inserted 1/10 to 4/10 on an inch deep. Although some procedures require needles to be inserted as deep as 10 inches. Acupuncture points are then stimulated by various forms of needle stimulation. Acupuncture is an incredibly effective form of medicine; This essay will present details explaining some of the uses of acupuncture.

Acupuncture; the insertion of needles into the body through specific spots, over neurorecepters. These needles are then stimulated by either: rotation, heat, or by a weak electrical current. Acupuncture is a medical technique used primarily as a relief of pain, but is known to cure disease, as well as improve general health.

“The theory suggest that acupuncture blocks the transmission of pain impulses from parts of the body to the central nervous system.” (Compton’s interactive encyclopedia). Three main sites have been found for endorphin acupuncture analgesia. This type of acupuncture blocks the sending of pain messages from the brain. The pituitary gland being one; this gland, when stimulated by needles, releases endorphin.

The second site are the periaquaductal gray neurons in the mid brain which release endorphins when stimulated. The third, electrical stimulation to the spinal cord endorphin system. The spinal cord releases endorphins to block the release of neurotransmitters, which carry the painful messages from the brain.

Acupuncture, used in Asia for over four thousand years; Originally for the relief of pain. “Acupuncture appears to be undeniably effective in relieving pain.” (Compton’s interactive encyclopedia). Western observers witnessed, ordinarily painful surgical operations carried out on fully conscious patients. These patients were only locally anesthetized by acupuncture and exhibited no signs of discomfort. The reason for acupuncture’s success is not known, except for the belief that acupuncture needles stimulate the body’s production of such natural pain-killing chemical substances as endorphins and enkephalins.

Acupuncture; known to cure disease and improve general health. With the enormous problem of high blood pressure in the United States, acupuncture has been very effective in the control of pressure; aiding Americans in the fight to keep their blood pressure down. In many arthritis patients, acupuncture has almost completely eliminated the pain and suffering. We as a society understand the problem with obesity in the United States; acupuncture successfully aided in the control of appetite. “At one time acupuncture was believed to be related to hypnosis, but extensive experiments in animals undergoing surgery in veterinary hospitals have disproved that theory.” (Compton’s interactive encyclopedia).

Meridians; the entire theory of acupuncture is on the belief of these meridians. These “meridians” are energy trails or channels throughout the body; believed by the Chinese to hold the opposite forces Yin and Yang, acupuncture keeps these two forces in balance. For example, the ancient Chinese designated that a master force or vital energy called Ch’I coordinates and controls the fundamental activities of different organs in the body.

Modern physicians have a difficult time accepting these elaborate systems of fanciful theories developed thousands of years ago to explain the mechanisms of acupuncture.

Modern science teaches that the nervous system and various hormonal substances perform the functions that these ancient doctors attributed to Ch’i. These energy channels are like rivers flowing through the body to irrigate and nourish the tissues. An obstruction in the movement of these energy rivers is like a dam that backs up in others.

The meridians can be influenced by needling the acupuncture points; the acupuncture needles unlock the obstructions at the dams, and reestablish the regular flow through the meridians. (Acupuncture-Microsoft Network, Nov. 30, 1996).

Stimulation of acupuncture needles; once all the needles are inserted for the specific meridian, the needles must be stimulated. The stimulation is what causes acupuncture to be so effective. There are several ways in which stimulation is reached: One being, a gentle twirling motion.

The physician, by use of his/her fingers gently rotates the needles. Second, there is heat stimulation, the physician heats the needle with a cigar looking tool designed specifically for acupuncture. Third, electrical stimulation; the physician agitates the needles with a low powered 2 hz electrical current. The physician connects the needles to a low output electrical stimulation machine. Stimulation is key to the success of acupuncture.

Acupuncture, a medical technique originating in the Orient, more than four-thousand years ago. Used primarily for reduction of pain, but to cure some disease, as well as improvement of general health. The most spectacular reason for acupuncture’s success is: Stimulation of needles by the acupuncturist. Stimulation of the meridians; the rivers of energy throughout our bodies.

These rivers get stopped up from time to time, acupuncture is the key to clearing the stop… Acupuncture a method of encouraging the body to promote natural healing and to improve bodily functions.

Defining Hiroshima: Dropping of “the most destructive explosive ever devised by man.”

The quote above is from a leaflet that was dropped on several Japanese cities, warning the people within to evacuate. No such warning fell on the people of Hiroshima: that was the site of the first of the two uses of the atomic bomb. Historians have debated the necessity, as have students in a classroom studying world history.

Whether or not the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima was necessary, on August 6, 1945, by the word of President Harry Truman, the city of Hiroshima felt the wrath of science.

Hiroshima is synonymous with the mentality of Harry Truman; he was a simple man who saw the world in black and white. Truman was told by his advisors (Leslie Groves among them) that the dropping of the bomb would end World War II with as little American casualties as possible.

Little or no talk of ethics took place, as Truman believed that the simple answer to the conflict was in the grasp of the United States. Hiroshima was the result of this “quick fix” for the war.

For the eighty thousand plus who died instantly as the extreme blast from “Little Boy” spread quickly overhead and through the streets, it was over before they knew it. This seems a merciful fate when coupled with the deaths and mutations that countless victims suffered from radiation poisoning years after the bomb fell.

So what is Hiroshima? A blunder of men, perhaps. A killer blow to fell the enemy instead of peace talks. The opening of a new era. Whatever one considers it, in finality, one must also see the whole of the bombing, what it was and what it means today.